My grandfather, Joseph Zwaik, was 16 years old when he walked off the steamship plank onto Ellis Island. It was 1911 and he was traveling alone, carrying everything he owned in a small suitcase. He came to a country that needed his labor and he faced an immigration bureaucracy that was more concerned with trachoma than with terrorists. Physicians checked for trachoma, a contagious eye infection, by turning the eyelid inside out with a buttonhook to look for inflammations on the inner eyelid. The process was quick and painful. Today, the process of immigrating to the United States is often slow and painful. An American citizen seeking to reunite with brothers or sisters must wait up to 12 years to bring them to the USA. A U.S. employer in desperate need of skilled workers to keep his business going must often wait between three to five years to bring in the workers he needs. “Illegal aliens” who keep America’s farms and factories working are often treated like criminals. Our immigration laws are so complex and contradictory as to defy any logic and politicians play to the voters by blaming immigrants for our problems in the wake of the September 11 terrorist attacks.